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How do self-driving cars work?

“Self-driving cars utilize LiDAR, radar, cameras, and sensors to sense the world around them and find the best path to the destination in a quick and safe manner.”



Self-driving cars can grasp their surroundings through mounted cameras, radar, LiDAR, and sensors and to make navigational decisions using a GPS unit and an inertial navigation system.


Autonomous driving technology is based on cameras and multi-purpose sensors that accurately recognize the environment as well as computer network algorithms that correctly analyze the current situation. The stereo camera installed on the windshield, the camera on the side view mirror, ultrasonic sensors on the front and rear bumpers, and the long- and short-range radar all serve to detect the movement of objects. If the vehicle’s computer network identifies a potentially dangerous situation, it either alerts the driver of the circumstance, or the car brakes to prevent an accident. All cameras and sensors are intertwined like a spider web to allow the car to actively respond to danger by exchanging and analyzing information. The key to this technology is to fuse the data from all the sensors to predict such situations in advance and to expect what the driver might not expect.


When it comes to self-driving cars, the control system makes navigation decisions. The system is capable of finding the optimal path to their destination without road obstacles through its internal map. Once the best route is selected, commands are sent to each actuator of the car to control the steering and braking.


Self-driving evolves in line with advancements in mechanical performance, such as the precision of cameras, sensors, and control systems. Currently, the progress based-off of this technology enables cars to drive while maintaining their distance from the vehicle ahead, keeping the vehicle in their lane, read traffic signs through their cameras, and slow down before entering intersections or corners by connecting themselves to their navigation maps. In the future, it is expected that cars will be able to recognize and prepare for any possible dangers in advance in the navigated paths by using cloud servers.