For any electric cars to be sold, manufacturers have to comply with specific design regulations and the majority of those features should ensure that their vehicle is safe enough for drivers. However, the power source of an electric vehicle presents a risk of hazard and manufacturers are developing the corresponding safety features to lessen the risks.
The Lithium-ion battery is combustible and can catch fires, it has power cells that can cause short-circuiting if it is damaged. However, lithium-ion batteries have a much lower risk of fire explosions than gasoline in conventional vehicles. To prevent external damage or short circuit, electric vehicle batteries are usually surrounded by a protective cooling shroud filled with coolant liquid. In addition, in spite of external cooling, all electric vehicles are installed in an array rather than one huge lithium-ion battery pack to prevent damage from malfunction.
A lithium-ion battery has a much narrower range of operation about 15 to 45 degrees, while modern standard vehicles are designed to operate in temperatures from minus 30 degrees celsius to heat beyond 50 degrees. Remaining within the particular temperature range is highly critical. Utilizing either fluid or air, cooling management and monitoring is highly recommended for the actual safety of the battery, vehicle, and the occupants.
From having larger battery packs with more cells to put in larger battery packs with packed capacity, they are all susceptible to thermal runaway. Containing a flammable liquid electrolyte, each cell in a lithium-ion battery, when the cell short-circuits, the electrolyte can combust and the pressure will increase at speed. Thermal runaway is an unstoppable chain reaction causing a fire at temperatures of 60 and above. Manufacturers are designing several ways to prevent and reduce the impact of thermal runaway in electric cars.
The electrolyte in lithium-ion batteries, which is full of flammable materials with harmful chemicals, can catch fire under any circumstances. However, manufacturers are questioning the problem by dividing the battery into small cells with separating fire-walls. It can be at least delayed from spreading to neighboring parts. Some engineers are making less risky electrolytes: less flammable and produce fewer harmful chemicals.
Thanks to the ongoing development and research, there have not been serious electric vehicle incidents yet. However, it should be still required that electric vehicles are sure to be safer than internal combustion engine vehicles in every regard.